The Annunaki, The Hyksos & The Shepard Kings


The Annunaki, The Hyksos & The Shepard Kings


By Mark Gibbs

What is the relationship between the Sumerian Annunaki, the Hebrews and the ancient culture know as the Hyksos?  The Bible uses the terms “Hebrew” and “Israelite” interchangeably, yet they are not synonymous according to biblical lore. Strictly speaking, an “Israelite” is a lineal descendant of Jacob, who was purportedly renamed “Israel” by an angel. Jacob is a grandson of Abraham, the so-called “Father of Faith.” Generally thought to have lived around 2000 BCE, Abraham is the legendary first and original progenitor of the supposedly two-hundred-generation Hebrew race. Although technically Hebrews, descendants from Abraham’s numerous other grandchildren are not Israelites.

For linguistic scholars, derivation of the word “Hebrew” is unclear, but it is taken for granted that “Hebrews” are a Semitic people, and that at some point in their history, the Israelites preferred or co-opted the name “Hebrew” to describe their nation. Since the Book of Genesis states that he traveled west via Harran from his home in Ur in non-Semitic Sumer, it is assumed Abraham was a Semitic immigrant living in exile. Nothing in the Bible supports that concept.

Sumerian reliefSumerians were the dominant cultural group from the beginning of the fourth millennium BCE to the end of the third millennium BCE. Sumerians origins are murky; their racial and linguistic affiliations remain unclassifiable, but their religious concepts profoundly influenced all the peoples of the Near East. Most biblical researchers now accept that the Old Testament was written retrospectively between the sixth and second centuries BCE, but many of the events described in Genesis also feature in Sumerian chronicles which were compiled up to two thousand years earlier.

The Bible gives no explanation for Abraham leaving Ur, but scholars concede that his departure from Sumer coincided with its imminent collapse. The popular image of Abraham, however – shepherd’s staff in hand as he wanders the rolling hills – is without foundation.


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About The Author

Mark Gibbs currently resides in Bali.

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